Ingredients Glossary

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A

ABSOLUTE
These aromatic, volatile substances are obtained by solvent extraction from a single botanical species. For example, rose absolute is derived from rose; jasmine absolute from jasmine and so on. None of the solvent remains after the process is complete. Absolutes may be used like essential oils.
ACACIA DECURRENS FLOWER WAX (ACACIA DECURRENS)
This wax is derived from the flower of the Acacia Decurrens, a perennial tree or shrub native to Australia, Africa, the Americas, Europe and areas around the Pacific and Indian oceans. It is commonly used in cosmetic pencils, creams and lip glosses.
ACACIA SENEGAL GUM (ACACIA SENEGAL)
This gummy substance exudes from the small, deciduous Acacia Senegal tree, which is native to sub-Saharan Africa, and is also cultivated in Egypt and India. The Acacia genus includes more than 1,200 species of flowering trees and shrubs. Many of them are used medicinally for their soothing properties. A complex polysaccharides and protein mixture that is colorless, tasteless and soluble in cold water, this ingredient naturally holds moisture, making it a perfect addition to hydrating lotions and creams.
ACER SACCHARUM (SUGAR MAPLE) EXTRACT (ACER SACCHARUM)
Extracted from the sap of the maple tree native to North America, this ingredient is a natural source of alpha hydroxy acids that is believed to have cell renewing, firming and soothing properties on skin. This extract is often found in shampoo, conditioner, hair styling products, body washes and lotions, cleansers, toners and facial moisturizers.
ACMELLA OLERACEA (PARA CRESS) EXTRACT (ACMELLA OLERACEA)
Extracted from the upper parts of the small plant that blossoms all year long has a broad geographical footprint covering the whole tropical zone in South America, Africa and Asia. Called “Mafane” in the Indian Ocean, this plant is used both in food and as a medicinal plant. Due to its myorelaxing activity, this extract has been shown to drastically reduce the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles in anti-aging skin care formulations, resulting in significantly smoother skin.
AESCULUS HIPPOCASTANUM (HORSE CHESTNUT) EXTRACT (AESCULUS HIPPOCASTANUM)
This herbal extract is derived from the bark, flower or seeds of the Horse Chestnut tree native to parts of Asia. It has astringent, anti-inflammatory, toning properties. The extract acts like an antioxidant, helping to inhibit the enzymes collagenase and elastase, which results in healthier collagen and supportive skin structures. In Europe, the extract is popularly used for the treatment of varicose veins because of its excellent tonic effects. It helps to balance circulation in the skin, promoting a clear, even complexion and good skin tone. In addition to being found in skin care products, the extract is also a common ingredient in shampoos and conditioners.
ALCOHOL DENAT.
Produced by the fermentation of starch or other carbohydrate sources, this ingredient is used as a solvent for extracts and various ingredients. It has a refreshing, astringent effect that promotes clarity in skin care products, including aftershaves and perfumes. It also is used medicinally as a topical antiseptic, astringent and anti-bacterial.
ALOE BARBADENSIS LEAF JUICE/ALOE BARBADENSIS LEAF EXTRACT (ALOE BARBADENSIS)
This mucus-like gel is cold pressed or mechanically extracted from the leaves of the aloe vera plant, a member of the desert lily family indigenous to East and South Africa. It is a good source of fatty acids, polysaccharides, salicylic acid, saponins, vitamins, minerals and amino acids. With a long history of medical uses, the gel is antibacterial, antiseptic, emollient, healing, moisturizing and soothing. When applied to cuts, burns, lesions and abrasions, this anti-irritant oxygenates the skin, allowing rapid healing, reducing inflammation and soothing the skin. Aloe vera is used in shampoos, hair setting lotions and conditioners, with remarkable results for both the hair and scalp.
ALPHA BISABOLOL
Bisabolol, is extracted from the candeia plant, has great anti-irritant and anti-inflammatory properties, which makes it a natural ingredient to use in skincare products. It also contains anti-bacterial as well as anti-fungal properties.
ALPHA HYDROXY ACID
This organic acid is produced by fermentation. Skin care products containing AHA exfoliate not only dry, dead and damaged skin cells, but the skin's protective barrier as well. Long-term skin damage may result from its use.
AMINO ACIDS
This group of compounds contains both the carboxyl (COOH) and the amino (NH2) groups. They are the building blocks of proteins and are crucial to the maintenance of the body. Essential amino acids, including histidine, leucine and lysine, cannot be manufactured by the body and must be supplied in the diet. Non-essential amino acids, including arginine, cystine and taurinc, are manufactured by the body. Many of these compounds are beneficial to the skin when included as ingredients in facial and body lotions, as they help to moisturize, restore and prevent wrinkles and other signs of premature aging.
AMYRIS BALSAMIFERA (AMYRIS) OIL (AMYRIS BALSAMIFERA)
Steam distilled from the wood of the tree mainly in Haiti, this essential oil has a pleasant, woody scent that is often used in place of true sandalwood oil. It has been used as a fixative in natural perfumes and aromatic blends. Amyris oil has a soothing effect on many inflammatory skin conditions.
ANTIOXIDANTS
These substances prevent the formation of free radicals, which can cause the oxidative deterioration that causes premature aging of the skin. Natural antioxidants like vitamins A, C and E are often included in skin care products to help fight wrinkles and other signs of aging.
ANTHEMIS NOBILIS FLOWER EXTRACT (ANTHEMIS NOBILIS)
This extract is steam-distilled from the flowers of what is commonly known as the Chamomile plant, grown extensively in Central and Eastern Europe. The yellow liquid has a warm, sweet, herbaceous scent that is calming, balancing, deeply relaxing and restorative to both mind and body. In massage oils, it can promote relaxation and help reduce muscle tension. This extract also has anti-inflammatory, anti-itching, cleansing, conditioning, healing, and moisturizing properties. It is one of the few essential oils that can be used on inflamed skin. It is used in cosmetics, soaps, detergents, perfumes and hair and bath products, and is used as a flavor in most major food categories.
ARCTUM LAPPA (BURDOCK) ROOT EXTRACT (ARCTIUM LAPPA)
Extracted by maceration from the roots of a leafy biennial native to Europe and Asia, this ingredient is rich in minerals like potassium, phosphorous, chromium, iron and zinc, plus vitamin B complex and vitamin E. This ingredient has been used in cosmetic products to increase circulation to the skin, helping to detoxify the epidermal tissues. It has antibacterial and astringent properties to soothe and tone skin and reduce irritation. It helps balance oil in skin and has traditionally been used for the treatment of acne, and other scaly skin disorders like eczema and psoriasis. When used in hair care formulations, the extract reduces scalp irritation, controls sebum, combats dandruff and promotes healthy hair growth.
AROMATHERAPY
Based on the belief that smell is an important part of healing, this traditional therapy has been used since ancient times to soothe both body and mind. Essences of flower petals, leaves, twigs roots and other natural elements are extracted mixed with oils for massaging the body or rubbing into the hands. Additionally, they are often used to infuse of soaps, cosmetics and ointments with restorative and energizing scents.
ASCORBIC ACID (VITAMIN C)
A preservative and antioxidant widely used in cosmetic creams, hair dyes and conditioners. Vitamin C is promoted in anti-wrinkle products and is necessary for normal healthy teeth, bones and blood vessels.
ASTRINGENT
A clearing liquid containing mostly alcohol that is used for contraction and tightening of organic tissue.
AVENA SATIVA (OAT) KERNEL FLOUR (AVENA SATIVA)
Common oat kernels are ground to produce this ingredient rich in moisturizing, humectant and ant-oxidant properties. In bath products, oat kernel flour helps soothe irritated or chafed skin. In hair care products, it helps condition and improve manageability.
AVENA SATIVA (OAT) KERNEL MEAL (AVENA SATIVA)
Common oat kernels are ground to produce this ingredient rich in moisturizing, humectant and antioxidant properties. In bath products, oat kernel meal helps soothe irritated or chafed skin. In hair care products, it helps condition and improve manageability.
AVENA SATIVA (OAT) KERNEL OIL (AVENA SATIVA)
The fixed oil expressed from common oat kernels has excellent emollient and penetrating abilities and natural antioxidant properties. These make it a popular ingredient in personal care products to improve elasticity of both skin and hair.

B

BARRIER CREAM
This type of cream produces a protective coating when applied to the skin and provides a barrier against the elements. Generally, barrier creams are quite oily products or contain lanolin.
BEE POLLEN EXTRACT
Often referred to as nature’s most complete food, bee pollen consists of plant pollens collected by worker bees combined with plant nectar and bee saliva. It has been prescribed to heal an array of health ailments since ancient times. Full of vitamins A, B, C, D, and E, it provides well-balanced health benefits. Its anti-oxidant properties enable it to fight free radicals that can cause damage to skin.
BEESWAX
One of the oldest and purest waxes, this substance derived from the honeycomb of the bee is commonly named white wax when bleached and yellow wax when unbleached. It is a natural emulsifier that produces few allergic reactions on skin. Beeswax is widely used in the cosmetics industry as an emulsifier, emollient and thickener, giving rich texture to creams, lotions, lipsticks, mascara and salves, and forming a protective barrier between your skin and the environment. Beeswax can be added to soap as part of the oil content to increase hardness of the final bar. Its high melting point makes it a popular material for candles, as it burns slowly.
BENTONITE
This sedimentary clay is composed of weathered and aged volcanic ash. The largest and most active deposits come from Wyoming and Montana in the United States. This clay has skin-softening properties and helps exfoliate dead skin cells and draw out impurities from the skin. It is used in cosmetics, bath products, oily hair and scalp treatments and mud packs.
BERTHOLLETIA EXCELSA (BRAZIL NUT) SEED OIL (BERTHOLLETIA EXCELSA)
The cold pressed oil from the fruit of the Brazil Nut Tree is light, yet highly nourishing and rich in essential fatty acids, selenium and vitamins. It is comprised of liposoluble vitamins, such as A and E, which are essential for protecting the skin against the effects of aging. Its light texture, quick absorption and sweet aroma give this natural emollient great versatility for use in a wide array of innovative personal care products, especially those formulated for lip care; dry, damaged hair; mature or dry skin; and even specific skin conditions like eczema and psoriasis.
BETA-CAROTENE
This plant-derived substance is converted to vitamin A by the body. It acts as an antioxidant and immune system booster, and has been shown to help guard against cancer and heart disease. Carotenoids were first isolated in the early 19th century, and have been used as food colorings since the 1950s. In skin care products, beta-carotene is a great natural colorant.
BETAINE
This nitrogenous compound, similar to an amino acid, is found in the roots of sugar beets (Beta vulgaris), native to Europe, North Africa and Asia. Applied to the skin, it is cooling and anti-inflammatory. It also increases skin’s moisture retention, because of its unique water binding and cell membrane protective properties.
BETULA ALBA (WHITE BIRCH) BARK EXTRACT (BETULA ALBA)
Steam distilled from the bark of birch trees native to Russia, this antibacterial, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory substance has been used to treat skin outbreaks for centuries. In skin care products, it is believed to assist in removing toxins and help boost circulation, as well as help to clear the skin and relieve psoriasis and eczema.
BIXA ORELLANA (ANNATTO) SEED EXTRACT
Extracted from the dried pulp of the fruit, this ingredient originates in Tropical America and the East and West Indies. Traditionally, annatto has been used as a colorant, but it can also be used as an emollient. It can be helpful in the treatment of aging and sun protection. The high carotenoid content provides antioxidant properties.
BORAGO OFFICINALIS (BORAGE) SEED OIL (BORAGO OFFICINALIS)
Cold pressed from the seeds of the beautiful borage plant, this oil is a rich source of gamma linolenic acid, an essential fatty acid that promotes healthy skin. It can help repair sun damage and has also been used with positive results for many different skin disorders, such as psoriasis, eczema, acne, rosacea and premature aging of the skin. The oil is commonly used in skin creams and lotions, as well as hair products.
BOTANICAL EXTRACT
An extract of herbs and plants, dissolved with water oil or alcohol.
BUTTERMILK POWDER
Buttermilk is the liquid left after hand churning butter, following the reaction with naturally occurring airborne bacteria. The powder formed when buttermilk is dehydrated is soothing and moisturizing when used alone as a bath soak or included in milk baths, bath salts or other formulations. Some formulas combine buttermilk powder with other skin-soothing natural powders like cornstarch, powdered herbs, oatmeal or rice bran.
BUTYROSPERMUM PARKII (SHEA BUTTER) (BUTYROSPERMUM PARKII)
This fat obtained from the fruit of the African karate tree, has moisturizing and healing properties. It has been used for centuries in Africa to protect and condition skin damaged by the sun and wind. It is naturally rich in vitamins A, E, and F, as well as a number of other vitamins, minerals and essential fatty acids, which help soothe, balance and hydrate the skin. Shea butter is an intense moisturizer and is great for revitalizing dull, dry or chapped skin on the body or scalp. It is known to promote skin renewal, help increase circulation and accelerate wound healing.

C

CALCIUM CARBONATE
This chemical compound is generally found in rocks, and can also be produced from a pure quarried source (usually marble), or prepared by passing carbon dioxide into a solution of calcium hydroxide. Calcium carbonate is widely used medicinally as an inexpensive dietary calcium supplement or antacid. As a food additive, it is used in some soymilk products as a source of dietary calcium. In dermal applications, this ingredient is used to draw impurities such as excess sebum from the skin and helps smooth the appearance of skin.
CALENDULA OFFICINALIS (CALENDULA) FLOWER EXTRACT/OIL (CALENDULA OFFICINALIS)
This extract is derived from the Marigold flower, a healing plant with stimulating, antiseptic and anti-inflammatory properties. Good for sensitive skin, this ingredient is an emollient with softening and soothing effects on hair and skin. It is also cleansing and astringent. In a hair rinse, it soothes irritated scalp and improves scalp conditions, as well as enhances the color of yellow and light red hair. When added to skin care formulas, calendula helps soothe and aids irritated skin.
CAMELLIA SINENSIS (GREEN TEA) LEAF EXTRACT (CAMELLIA SINENSIS)
The extract of the leaves of a perennial evergreen shrub native to Asia, this ingredient has a long history of therapeutic use, dating back to China approximately 5,000 years ago. Green tea extract is a rich source of anti-oxidants, such as vitamins C and E and is valued for its stimulating, anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging (anti-oxidant) activity. Green tea extract is said to help repair the effects of aging and environmental factors on skin. It is also believed to help rejuvenate skin, prevent sun damage and promote elasticity. When used in hair care products, green tea extract tones and protects the scalp. This extract is also often found in energizing or revitalizing spa products.
CAMPHOR (CINNAMOMUM CAMPHORA)
Steam distilled from the cinnamomum camphora tree found in Asia, Africa and the Americas, this essential oil has a strong, penetrating, fragrant odor, a bitter, pungent taste, and is cooling and highly stimulating to the skin. It is a powerful antiseptic that aids in the treatment of respiratory ailments, opens blocked nasal passages, relieves congestion and reduces muscular aches, pains and stiffness. Camphor essential oil is used primarily in lip balms, muscle rubs and bath soaks for cold and flu. It can be used as a deodorant, soothing agent, skin conditioner, aphrodisiac, and muscle relaxant, to care for oily skin and as an insect repellent.
CANANGA ODORATE (YLANG YLANG) FLOWER EXTRACT/OIL (CANANGA ODORATA)
Steam distilled from the flower of this plant native to the Philippines and Indonesia, the essential oil of ylang ylang is used in aromatherapy. It is said to calm anger, release tension, lift depression and stabilize mood swings, as well as act as an aphrodisiac. This ingredient can also promote wound healing. In a facial oil or cream, it can help balance sebum production and is most helpful to oily skin. It also is believed to fight the bacteria that often contribute to acne and can be used in a facial toner to balance oily skin.
CANNABIS SATIVA (HEMP) SEED OIL (CANNABIS SATIVA)
Commonly cultivated in Europe, Asia, North America and Chile, hemp has a bad reputation as being an illegal narcotic, which deters many people from the plant. However, its seeds are one of the most nutritious substances on earth. Oil from them can be used to nourish the skin and hair because of its high content of proteins and essential fatty acids. The fatty acids in hemp closely resemble our own skin’s lipids, so they are readily absorbed into the skin. The oil is said to help slow skin’s aging and provide a healthy moisture balance. Additionally, it offers relief to acne, minor abrasions, psoriasis and eczema.
CANOLA OIL (BRASSICA CAMPETSTRIS)
This oil is low erucic acid is very high in minerals, vitamins and gamma linolenic acids. It is also very affordable and suitable for all skin types. Canola is popular with massage therapists, Aroma therapists and cosmetics manufacturers, and is used most often in personal care products as a carrier oil.
CARAMEL
This concentrated solution of heated sugar has been used since ancient times as a sweet treat. Today, it is also used as a natural coloring agent for foods and cosmetics.
CARMINE
Obtained from the carminic acid produced by some scaly insects, such as the cochineal and the Polish cochineal, this bright red substance was first used by the ancient Egyptians as a natural pigment in cosmetics, particularly those for the eye and lip areas.
CARTHAMUS TINCTORIUS (SAFFLOWER) OLEOSOMES (CARTHAMUS TINCTORIUS)
No solvents or chemicals are used in the gentle extraction process used to capture the oleosomes of this plant in the sunflower family. This protein-protected seed oil, marketed as Hydresia™, is isolated from the seed fully intact, and contains reservoirs of natural moisture barriers, emollient oils and antioxidants that benefit and protect the skin from premature aging. It is a natural base that acts as an emulsifier, emollient and moisturizer in one. This oil is an effective and popular ingredient in leave-on products such as skin and lip balms, creams, soaps, massage oils and hair care products, as well as rinse-off products like salt and sugar scrubs bath bombs and dispersing bath oils.
CARRIER OILS
Extracted from nuts, kernels, seeds, these oils are sometimes called vegetable oils. They are used to dilute essential oils, which are very concentrated and cannot be used directly on the skin because they can cause irritation. Examples of common carrier oils include: sweet almond, apricot kernel, avocado, grape seed, olive and wheat germ.
CARYA ILLINOENSIS (PECAN) SHELL POWDER (CARYA ILLINOENSIS)
Made from the dried, ground shells of the pecan nut it is often used as a gentle, natural exfoliant in body and facial scrubs.
CENTAUREA CYANUS FLOWER EXTRACT (CENTAUREA CYANUS)
Cornflower (Centaurea cyanus) is native to Europe, where it is considered a weed in fields. However, it is also used as an ornamental flower because of its intense blue flowers, and has become naturalized in North America and Australia. Cornflowers are used in personal care because of their anti-inflammatory and astringent properties.
CETEARYL ALCOHOL
Not an "alcohol" such as ethyl or rubbing alcohol, this ingredient is actually an emulsifying wax made by combining fatty alcohols derived from vegetable sources. Used as an emulsifier and emollient, it is not drying to the skin, and in fact, forms an occlusive film that helps keep skin’s moisture from evaporating when used in skin care products. In hair care products, it gives hair and skin a velvety feeling.
CETRIMONIUM BROMIDE
A cationic surfactant has antiseptic and preservative properties. It is an especially effective ingredient in cream rinses and conditioners, smoothing damaged hair and leaving a uniquely light feel to hair.
CETYL ALCOHOL
This natural nonionic surfactant is derived from coconut and palm oils. While it’s a fatty alcohol, it is not an "alcohol" like ethyl or rubbing alcohol. Cetyl alcohol widely used as a softener, emulsifier and thickener in skin creams and lotions, as well in shampoos and conditioners.
CHAMOMILLA RECUTITA (MATRICARIA) FLOWER EXTRACT (CHAMOMILLA RECUTITA)
Steam distilled from the flower heads of German Chamomile, this essential oil has a high content of azulene, which gives it a deep blue color and makes it a powerful anti-inflammatory. It is soothing, calming and balancing, both psychologically and physically, and provides an effective treatment for skin allergies, such as eczema and other rashes. The gentle action of the herb calms, heals and soothes skin conditions.
CHLOROPHENESIN
One of the newest preservative agents in the personal care arena, this ingredient has been used widely in the pharmaceutical industry for many years because of its antifungal and antibacterial characteristics. When chlorophenesin is combined with other preservative actives, its overall performance is boosted, making it a good choice for preservation and stabilization of both medicines and cosmetics.
CHLOROPHYLL
This natural colorant is a green pigment found in most plants, algae and cyanobacteria. It is essential for photosynthesis, and to add color to personal care products, naturally.
CHONDRUS CRISPUS (CARRAGEENAN) EXTRACT (CHONDRUS CRISPUS)
Derived from dried Irish moss, which grows along the Atlantic coasts of both Europe and North America, this ingredient is a good source of polysaccharides, proteins, iodine and bromine. Its soothing, protective and nourishing properties, as well as its effectiveness as a thickener and stabilizer make it a common ingredient in cosmetics and hair care products. It is often found in bath salts and teas, facials, body wraps and detoxifying bath blends and soaps.
CINNAMOMUM ZEYLANICUM (CINNAMON) OIL
This essential oil is steam distilled from the bark of the tree. It has been used for thousands of years in the East for a variety of complaints including colds, flu, digestive and menstrual problems and rheumatism. Cinnamon oil is native to Indonesia, but cultivated in Sri Lanka, India and Madagascar. It has a mildly astringent effect on the skin, tightening loose tissues. It also helps in the treatment of warts and wasp stings.
CITRIC ACID
This natural alpha hydroxy acid, derived from various citrus fruits, is used in cosmetics to adjust the pH level to prevent personal care formulas from becoming too alkaline. It also acts as a mild acidic preservative and gentle exfoliant for skin.
CITRUS AURANTIFOLIA (LIME) EXTRACT/OIL (CITRUS AURANTIFOLIA)
Cold pressed or steam distilled from the peel of the fruit of lime trees found in tropical climates throughout the world, this oil energizes, rejuvenates and refreshes the spirit. Lime is often used for shave products, body washes and shampoos. Externally it is used as an astringent to brighten dull skin. Its antiseptic and disinfectant properties are useful for clearing oily, congested skin. Lime also is believed to improve circulation and is a good toner for skin.
CITRUS AURANTIUM (PETIGRAIN) EXTRACT/OIL (CITRUS AURATIUM)
Steam distilled from the dark green glossy leaves and small leaf-bearing twigs of the orange tree, this non-toxic, non-irritating and non-sensitizing oil is one of three oils derived from the orange tree. It has a fresh, flowery, lightly citrus scent that is both revitalizing and relaxing. The essential oil blends well with sweeter scents with similar properties because it helps to balance out the fragrance. It is an effective gentle cleanser, making it suitable for products formulated for oily skin and acne.
CITRUS AURANTIUM (NEROLI) EXTRACT/OIL (CITRUS AURANTIUM)
Distilled from the blossoms of the bitter orange tree, this essential oil has a floral citrus aroma that is useful in formulations intended to aid anxiety, relieve depression and uplift the spirits. It is believed to help increase circulation and stimulate new cell growth, and may help prevent scarring and stretch marks. It is particularly beneficial to dry, irritated or sensitive skin. This ingredient regulates sebum production, minimizes the appearance of enlarged pores and helps to clear acne and blemished skin, especially if the skin lacks moisture. With regular treatment, it may help reduce the appearance of fragile or broken capillaries and varicose veins.
CITRUS AURANTIUM AMARA (BITTER ORANGE) EXTRACT/OIL (CITRUS AMARA)
This essential oil is cold pressed from the peel of the bitter orange, native to Asia. It has a very heavy sweet citrus smell, with a slight bitterness, like grapefruit. Generally non-toxic, non-irritating, non-sensitizing and antiseptic, it can be used as a room freshener. It also helps refresh the mind, raise the spirits and calm and soothe the nerves. Flavanoids and vitamins in the oil are believed to aid in the treatment of dermatitis, oily skin and cellulite.
CITRUS AURATIUM BERGAMIA (BERGAMOT) FRUIT/LEAF OIL (CITRUS AURANTIUM BERGAMIA)
Cold pressed from the peel of the fruit of this Italian tree, the oil has been used for many years as a treatment for a wide range of conditions including skin and mouth problems and respiratory conditions. It is an excellent deodorizer, can be used to elevate moods and is believed to help with the treatment psoriasis and eczema. The oil is one of the most widely used in the perfumery and toiletry industry, and is popular in blended massage and bath oils.
CITRUS AURANTIUM DULCIS (SWEET ORANGE) FRUIT EXTRACT/OIL & PEEL EXTRACT/OIL (CITRUS AURANTIUM DULCIS)
Cold pressed from the fruit and peel of orange trees native to China and India, now cultivated in Brazil, Cypress, Israel, Mexico and the United States, this ingredient is valued for its zesty and refreshing, sweet-yet-tart aroma that is both uplifting and calming. In skin care preparations, orange oil helps to reduce puffiness and is believed to be particularly good for dry or aged skin. Both the oil and the peel are used to help stimulate circulation, clear blemishes and assist in the release of toxins from dull or blemished skin. The peel is used as a natural chemical exfoliator in facial washes and scrubs.
CITRUS AURANTIUM DULCIS (SWEET ORANGE) PEEL WAX (CITRUS AURANTIUM DULCIS)
Cold pressed from the fruit and peel of orange trees native to Asia, North America, the Mediterranean and the Middle East, this semi-solid wax is an excellent emollient, containing phytosterols. These phytosterols aid in stabilizing emulsions. The wax is becoming a popular ingredient in leading lotions and creams, adding a beautiful orange citrus fragrance that is very similar in note to orange essential oil. It is also reputed to possess anti-microbial properties.
CITRUS GRANDIS (GRAPEFRUIT) FRUIT EXTRACT
This essential oil is cold pressed from the peel of the fruit of the grapefruit tree, native to India. It has antiseptic properties and a fresh aroma. This oil relieves congested, oily skin and has a toning effect on skin and tissues.
CITRUS MEDICA LIMONIUM (LEMON) PEEL OIL/EXTRACT (CITRUS MEDICA LIMONIUM)
This essential oil is cold expressed from the peel of the fruit of the lemon tree, native to India, but grown around the world today. The clean smelling extract made from the oil is believed to stimulate and enliven the skin and balance sebum. In skin care products, it can be used to treat the appearance of cellulite and acne.
CITRUS MEDICA LIMONIUM (LEMON) FRUIT OIL (CITRUS LIMONIUM)
This essential oil has a clean, sharp, refreshing and uplifting scent. It is believed to stimulate the white corpuscles in the body to help fight infection. Used in massage oil, it can help to relieve lymph glands congested from infection and is believed to reduce bloating. In cosmetics and skin care formulas, the botanical can help improve oily complexions and fight skin blemishes. Likewise, in hair products, it can help control oil on the scalp.
CITRUS NOBILIS (MANDARIN) OIL (CITRUS NOBILIS)
This essential oil is expressed from the peel of the mandarin orange, native to China but today is grown throughout the Mediterranean, the Middle East and the Americas. It is non-toxic, non-irritating and non-sensitizing, and is used as a flavoring agent especially in confectionery, soft drinks and liqueurs, as well as providing a soothing scent in soaps, cosmetics and perfumes. It is also useful to help reduce the appearance of stretch marks, increase circulation and reduce fluid retention.
CITRUS RETICULATA (TANGERINE) OIL (CITRUS RETICULATA)
This essential oil is a sweet citrus oil that promotes tranquility and a sense of well-being. It is calming and gentle enough for children. In skin care products, tangerine is said to help reduce cellulite and act as a diuretic. It is a good toner for oily skin because of its antiseptic properties.
COCO-BETAINE
The inner salt derived from coconut oil, this ingredient is one of the most commonly used naturally-derived surfactants in the personal care industry. It is a high foaming surfactant that bubbles up quickly, but the bubbles don't last very long before dissipating. Traditionally this ingredient has only been considered as a co-surfactant. It is a mild cleanser, which makes it ideal for products that must be gentle, such as baby formulations, or in formulas where foam is of the most importance and cleansing is a secondary concern, such as bubble baths.
COCO-GLUCOSIDE
An anionic Surfactant derived from coconut oil, this ingredient softens and moisturizes skin and hair. It produces a mild foam that is also a lipid layer enhancer to prevent defatting and drying out of the skin. In hair care products, it smoothes hair structure to improve manageability.
COCOS NUCIFERA (COCONUT) OIL (COCOS NUCIFERA)
Cold pressed from the fruit of palm trees, which are native to the tropics and grown in sandy soil, this oil is light, non-greasy, exceptionally emollient and has cooling properties. It is a great oil for use as a general moisturizer and serves as a protective layer on the skin, helping to retain the moisture. Because it is mild, it is suitable for inflamed, irritated and sensitive skin. Coconut oil is commonly used to promote lather in soaps and gels, and be incorporated well into balms and stick formulations. It is often found in lipsticks, soaps, ointments, massage creams and sunscreens.
COLLAGEN
This protein is the most abundant in the human body, containing mainly glycerin, hydroxyproline and prioline. It is found in all connective tissues, including skin, cartilage, tendons and ligaments. When the collagen in the skin deteriorates due to aging or overexposure to the sun, wrinkles appear. The substance is sometimes used in cosmetics and toiletries to combat these effects, though there is no evidence that external application is effective.
COPERNICIA CERIFERA (CARNAUBA) WAX (COPERNICIA CERIFERA)
This vegetable wax is derived from the leaves of the carnuba palm, native to Brazil. It is used in tablet and candy coatings. Carnauba wax is often used in conjunction with beeswax or candelilla in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic products, such as lip balms, lipsticks, body butters, creams, lotions and hair pomades. Because it is extremely hard, it is also used to produce a glossy finish in automotive waxes, shoe polishes and floor and wood polishes.
CORIANDRUM OFFICINALIS (CORIANDER) FRUIT EXTRACT/OIL (CORIANDRUM OFFICINALIS)
This warm, sweet, spicy essential oil is steam distilled from the seeds of coriandum sativum, native to Russia. It has antibacterial properties and is a good oil to diffuse during the cold season. Coriander essential oil can be used in muscle rubs to warm and relax tense muscles, and lends an interesting note to fragrance blends.
CORYLUS AVELLANA (HAZLENUT) SEED OIL (CORYLUS AVELLANA)
Expeller pressed from the seeds of a small deciduous tree that grows in the wild in Northern Europe, this carrier oil is packed with nourishing vitamins, minerals and proteins. It is light, penetrating and slightly astringent, and is high in essential fatty acids. Soothing and healing to dry, irritated skin, it also is believed to encourage cell regeneration. Natural cosmetics and perfumes containing active ingredients that need to penetrate the skin without leaving a greasy feel often contain hazelnut oil, as do beauty creams and milks, cleansing products, sun care products, massage oils, lipsticks foaming baths and facial products for oily or combination skin.
CUCURBITA PEPO (PUMPKIN) SEED OIL (CUCURBITA PEPO)
Cold pressed from the seeds of pumpkins grown throughout the world, this dark, highly emollient oil is rich in vitamins A, C, E, K and zinc. Its high amounts of poly-unsaturated fatty acids, natural vitamin E and beta carotene, make it a natural for promoting healthy skin growth and a popular ingredient in lotions, soaps, creams, massage products, and suntan lotions.
CUPRESSUS SEMPERVIRENS (CYPRESS) OIL (CUPRESSUS SEMPERVIRENS)
Extracted by steam distillation from the needles and twigs of evergreen trees in the Mediterranean region, this essential oil is commonly used in massage blends and aromatherapy. It is non-toxic, non-irritant and non-sensitizing. Cypress oil helps to control excessive water loss, heal wounds and detoxify the skin when used in a bath. When used in a lotion or cream, it can be used for varicose veins, as well as clearing oily and congested skin.
CYMBOPOGON NARDUS (CITRONELLA) OIL
Grown mainly in Sri Lanka and Java, the sweet, lemony smell of this essential oil has been used extensively in perfumes, soaps, lotions and deodorizing cosmetics. Distilled from cut grass, citronella is most often used as an insect repellent. It can help to relieve rheumatic aches and pains, treat oily skin and soften skin.
CYMBOPOGON MARTINI (PALMAROSA) OIL (CYMBOPOGON MARTINI)
Steam distilled from the grass of the “Indian Geranium,” this essential oil has a sweet, floral fragrance similar to a combination of geranium and rose, with a slight citrus note. Non-toxic, non-irritant and non-sensitizing, it is antibacterial, antiseptic balancing and regenerating. The oil is soothing and stimulating, and can be used to relieve stress and fatigue. It may be used in a room burner for its antiviral properties. It is used extensively as a fragrance in cosmetics, perfumes and especially soaps due to excellent tenacity. Considered to be a cellular regenerative, palmarosa may be useful in skin care formulas for all skin types, but especially for dry or mature skin.
CYMBOPOGON SCHOENANTHUS (LEMONGRASS) OIL (CYMBOPOGON SCHOENANTHUS)
Steam distilled from the dried leaves of a wild grass native to India, this oil has a lemony, sweet smell. This oil is an insect repellant. It revitalizes the body, relieves the symptoms of jetlag, clears headaches and helps to combat nervous exhaustion and stress-related conditions. This oil helps tone muscles and tissue and relieves muscle pains by making the muscle more supple. It is believed to alleviate excessive perspiration and is used for clearing up oily skin and acne, as well as athlete's foot.

D

DAUCUS CAROTA SAVITA (CARROT) SEED EXTRACT/OIL (DAUCUS CAROTA)
This essential oil with a heavy, woodsy scent is steam distilled from the seeds of European wild carrots, which are a close cousin of the orange carrots we eat. It is rich in beta-carotene and vitamin A, making it beneficial for healthy skin, hair, gums and teeth. It even contributes to good eyesight. This oil is used primarily for its soothing, healing properties and effects on the skin. It is believed to stimulate cell renewal and circulation, repair and tone the skin, balance sebum, increase elasticity and reduce the appearance of wrinkles and scars. It helps protect skin exposed to extreme weather, and is considered to be one of the best essential oils for dry and mature skin.
ARTEMISIA PALLENS (DAVANA) SEED EXTRACT/OIL (ARTEMISIA PALLENS)
This essential oil is steam distilled from the leaves of the overground parts of a flowering herb grown in southern India. It is very dark green or brownish green in color and has a sharp, penetrating odor that is foliage like and powerfully herbaceous with a sweet balsamic, tenacious backnote. It is used primarily as a fragrance in personal care products, and is used in aromatherapy for its balancing and stabilizing properties.
DECYL GLUCOSIDE
This ingredient is produced by the reaction of glucose from cornstarch with the fatty alcohol decanol, which is derived from coconut oil. It is biodegradable, non-toxic, non-irritating and will not block pores. This extremely mild and effective non-ionic cleanser creates an excellent lather, rinses quickly, is biodegradable and offers a natural alternative to harsh surfactants like Sodium Laurel Sulfate. Decyl glucoside is used in a wide variety of personal care products, including products for individuals with sensitive skin.
DIOSCOREA VILLOSA (WILD YAM) ROOT EXTRACT (DIOSCOREA VILLOSA)
Derived from the root of a twining tuberous vine native to North America, this ingredient has a calming effect on skin, and is typically added to products to help increase skin’s firmness.

E

ECHINACEA PURPUREA EXTRACT
Derived by maceration from a perennial native to North America, Echinacea is anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and a gentle skin conditioner. It can be applied to cuts, abrasions, bites and stings to help promote healing, regenerate healthy cells, reduce inflammation and maintain the structure of connective tissue. It is also used in shampoo, conditioner and various skin care products.
ELAEIS GUINEENSIS (PALM) OIL (ELAESIS GUINEENSIS)
Extracted from the fruit of the palm, native to Africa and commonly grown in the East Indies, this oil is emollient, lubricating, generally non-toxic and non-sensitizing. The oil is often used in soaps, lotions and creams. In cold process soap making, this ingredient helps create a hard bar that resists melting, when used in combination with other oils such as coconut oil and olive oil. Oleochemicals manufactured from palm oil and palm kernel oil are environmentally friendly and readily biodegradable.
ELETTARIA CARDAMOMUM (CARDAMOM) SEED EXTRACT/OIL (ELETTARIA CARDAMOMUM)
Derived by maceration or steam distillation of the seeds of a tree found in southern India, Sri Lanka, Tanzania and Guatemala, this ingredient is antibacterial, antiviral and stimulating. Cardamom is a pungent, warm aromatic herb that has tonic effects and is reputed to have aphrodisiac qualities. It is used as a skin conditioner and soothing agent.
EMOLLIENT
This general term is applied to various skin conditioning agents that help maintain the smooth, soft, pliable appearance of the skin. While the terms emollient and moisturizer are often used interchangeably, the two functions are different but often occur at the same time.
EMULSIFIER
This type of agent is used to assist in the production of an emulsion. Emulsifiers enable oils to be dispersed throughout a water base to form a cream or lotion that does not separate.
EMULSION
This is a stable system in which two liquids that would not normally mix together are held in suspension by a small amount of an emulsifier.
EQUISETUM HIEMALE LEAF/STEM EXTRACT (EQUISETUM HIEMALE)
Derived by maceration from the leaves and stems of the horsetail plant native to Europe, North Africa, Northern Asia and the Americas, this ingredient is anti-inflammatory, astringent, cleansing, toning, healing and moisturizing. It is rich in silica and other minerals, and is valued for its high levels of amino acids and phytosterols, which are believed to help strengthen and condition hair and skin, and normalize oil production. The extract also contains saponins, which create lather, and flavone-glycosides to help stimulate micro-circulation of the scalp. In skin formulas, this ingredient is believed to help increase firmness and elasticity.
ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS
There are two families of essential fatty acids, which play a role in various biological processes, but cannot be produced by the body. Omega-3s (alpha-linolenic acid or ALA) and omega-6s (linoleic acid) are found in many common seed and vegetable oils. Seed oils are the richest sources of ALA, notably those of rapeseed (canola), soybeans, walnuts, flaxseed (Linseed), perilla, chia and hemp. When included in skin care formulas, they can be effective in treating conditions including dry skin, eczema and acne.
ESSENTIAL OILS
These oils are volatile, rapidly evaporating oils obtained from the leaves, stems, flowers, seeds or roots of a plant that usually carry the odor characteristic of the plant. Most essential oils are produced by steam distillation, although several are mechanically expressed. Essential oils add fragrance to skin care products, as well as contribute to their healthful and beautifying qualities through their various abilities to tone, balance, relax, cleanse and invigorate. Although all essential oils are fragrant, not all fragrances are made from essential oils. True essential oils must be plant derived.
ESTER
This type of compound is formed by the reaction of an acid or an alcohol. The esters used in cosmetics are usually emollients that help products spread easily and penetrate into the contours of the skin more readily.
EUCALYPTUS GOBULUS (EUCALYPTUS) LEAF EXTRACT/OIL (EUCALYPTIS GLOBULUS)
Steam distilled or macerated from the leaves and twigs of eucalyptus grown in Australia, China and Portugal, this essential oil is best known for its ability to aid respiratory ailments and provide relief from flu and congestion. It stimulates circulation, increases concentration and is useful for relieving joint and muscle aches and pains. This oil can help stop the irritation of a bug bite and even prevent one, as it acts as an insect repellent.
EUGENIA CARYOPHYLLUS (CLOVE) FLOWER EXTRACT/OIL (EUGENIA CARYOPHYLLUS)
Steam distilled from the leaves, stem and buds of a slender evergreen native to Indonesia and the Malacca Islands, this potent oil can help to stimulate the mind, aid in digestion, relieve pain from arthritis and rheumatism and ease respiratory problems. The warm, spicy, aromatic oil is effective as an antiseptic, and can be used to treat cuts, bruises and burns.
EUPHORBIA CERIFERA (CANDELILLA) WAX (EUPHORBIA CERIFERA)
This hard vegetable wax is found on the leaves of a small shrub native to Mexico and the southwestern United States. It is best known as the ingredient that makes chewing gum chewy and gives it the ability to hold its flavor. The wax has superior molding properties. It is used to provide shine and lock in moisture in skincare products and cosmetics like lip balms, lipsticks, body butters, creams, lotions, hair pomades and other products.
EUPHRASIA OFFICINALIS (EYEBRIGHT) LEAF EXTRACT (EUPHRASIA OFFICINALIS)
This plant has been used for centuries as a topical solution for eye irritation. It has a toning effect on the surface of the eye, and has excellent astringent and anti-inflammatory properties. Eyebright is believed to help reduce puffy, swollen eyes and restore their brightness and sparkle.
EXFOLIANT
A product or ingredient that is used to remove dead skin cells or waste products from the skin. Exfoliants mechanically removed dirt using a gently abrasive action, leaving the skin soft and smooth.

F

FLAVOR
The particular aromatic blend of essential oils added to a product to impart a taste.
FOENICULUM VULGARE (FENNEL) SEED EXTRACT/OIL (FOENICULUM VULGARE)
Steam distilled from the seeds of a bush native to the Mediterranean, this essential oil is a good cleansing oil, useful in detoxification. Fennel can be used as a gentle cleanser and skin toner to help soothe mildly irritated skin. Used in a creams or lotions, it is believed to be helpful for dispersing bruises, enlivening a dull complexion, clearing oily skin and fighting wrinkles.
FRAGRANCE
The particular aromatic blend of essential oils added to a product to impart a scent.
FREE RADICAL
These highly-reactive atoms or molecules can cause cellular damage, impairing the immune system and leading to degenerative diseases. They also are known contributors to premature aging of the skin.
FUCUS VESICULOSUS (BLADDERWRACK) EXTRACT (FUCUS VESICULOSUS)
This ingredient is derived by maceration from brown seaweed harvested in cool ocean waters around the world. It is a source of potassium, iodine, vitamins A and D and some protein, which make it desirable for skin and hair care. It is softening and regenerative and can be used for its thickening properties in creams and lotions. The extract has been used to tone skin and help to stimulate cellular activity. Great in baths, it provides various minerals and salts that cleanse and refresh skin.

G

GLUCOSE
This product of photosynthesis in plants is an organic compound found in fruits and honey. A simple sugar, or monosaccharide, glucose is used in foods, medicine, brewing, and wine making and as the source of various other organic formulas.
GLUCOSE OXIDASE
Glucose oxidase is found in honey and acts as a natural preservative by reducing atmospheric oxygen to hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide acts as an antimicrobial barrier, helping preserve personal care products by inhibiting the growth of microbes such as bacteria, fungi and viruses.
GLYCERIN
This sweet-tasting, clear, syrupy liquid is made by combining water and fats derived from vegetable oil. Glycerin is used in moisturizers due to its water binding capabilities that allow it to draw and absorb water from the air helping skin retain moisture. Non-irritating and soothing, it can be used on even the most sensitive skin, and is a common ingredient in clear soaps.
GLYCERYL OLEATE
Used as an emulsifier, this natural surfactant made from sunflower oil is an extremely mild and effective cleanser that rinses quickly.
GLYCINE SOJA (SOYBEAN) OIL (GLYCINE SOJA)
Cold pressed from beans native to southwestern Asia and cultivated worldwide in warm regions, this oil is high in linoleic acid, contains proteins and some vitamin A, C, E, and K. It also contains lecithin, which is known for its emulsifying and antioxidant properties. Soybean is a light-textured, nourishing, easily absorbed, odorless oil, suitable as a moisturizer and softener for all skin types. This oil is commonly found in soaps, moisturizers, lipsticks and shampoos.

H

HAMAMELIS VIRGINIANA (WITCH HAZEL) BARK/LEAF/TWIG EXTRACT (HAMAMELIS VIGINIANA)
Derived by maceration or steam distillation from a shrub indigenous to North America and cultivated in Europe, this extract has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, healing and soothing properties. It has a long history of use in oral health care. One of nature's best astringents, it is frequently used in products like after shave lotions, where it shows mildly styptic properties and helps to reduce razor burn and swelling. It also can be used as a toner or in place of a cleanser, where it is particularly beneficial in clearing oily skin. The extract is also beneficial in treating skin irritations and can be used to wash wounds and calm the itch of bug bites and stings.
HEDYCHIUM GARDNERIANUM (HAWAIIAN GINGER) EXTRACT
Originating from India and now grown in Hawaii and other tropical areas, this ingredient is most commonly used as an exfoliant in soaps and creams. It increases circulation to the skin helping to remove toxins.
HELIANTHUS ANNUUS (SUNFLOWER) SEED OIL (HELLANTHUS ANNUUS)
Cold pressed from specially cultivated sunflower seeds, this highly versatile oil is valued for its light taste and health benefits, supplying more vitamin E than any other vegetable oil. It is also naturally high in vitamins A and D, lecithin and the essential fatty acid Omega 9. Its high oleic content makes it a good ingredient because it is believed to help with cell regeneration and is highly recommended for products formulated to moisturize mature or damaged skin. Sunflower oil absorbs quickly and can be used in creams, lotions, scrubs and any personal care product where a light oil is desired.
HERBS
A plant or plant part that is valued for its medicinal or aromatic qualities.
HONEY
This sweet, viscous fluid produced by honeybees is one of the oldest natural skin care ingredients. It has been used in skin care for its antimicrobial, healing and skin softening properties. Honey is rich in amino acids, vitamins and minerals. As a natural cleanser, honey attracts dead cells from the surface of the skin. Honey powder is used in creams, lotions, soaps, scrubs, facials, masks, body wraps, bath teas, milk baths, bath salts and bath bombs.
HUMECTANT
This type of substance preserves the moisture or water content of the skin. Most dry skin lacks moisture rather than oil, and therefore humectants and moisturizers are needed instead of creams or oils. The most effective humectants are alpha hydroxy acids, particularly lactic acid, which, when applied to the skin, draws water from the deeper layers of skin to the surface.
HUMULUS LUPULUS (HOPS) EXTRACT (HUMULUS LUPULUS)
Derived from the dried pinecone-like fruit of the hop plant grown in Europe, Asia and North America, this ingredient is helpful in the treatment of inflammation, rheumatic pains and bruises. In skin care, hops can help with dermatitis, rashes, rough skin, boils and ulcers. It is antiseptic, astringent and emollient.
HYDRASTIS CANADENSIS (GOLDEN SEAL) EXTRACT (HYDRASTIS CANADENSIS)
Steam distilled from the root of a bush that grows wild in mountainous areas of North America, this herb’s name comes from the golden color on the root of the plant. The extract is high in vitamins A, C and E, as well as B complex. With anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, astringent and tonic properties, it has long been used in salves and balms to help treat skin disease and inflammation.
HYDRATING
Supplying with ample fluid or water.
HYDROGENATED JOJOBA OIL
This hard, crystalline wax is made by adding hydrogen to unsaturated jojoba oil, a liquid wax found in the seed of the small, tree-like jojoba plant, native to the southwestern United States and Mexico. The oil is widely used as an emollient, or skin softener, and is a popular addition to cosmetics.
HYDROLYZED WHEAT PROTEIN
This protein has been partially turned into water through hydrolysis. Plant proteins have excellent skin compatibility and when used in personal care products, deposit a protective, smoothing and moisturizing film on the skin and hair. They add gloss, body and luster to hair and create a flexible, strengthening network on the surface of the skin. Wheat protein can help to replicate the elasticity and tone found in youthful, vitalized skin.
HYDROXYPROPYLTRIMONIUM HONEY
This emollient, derived from honey, is a good moisturizer for hair and scalp, restoring hair’s elasticity and flexibility.
HYPERICUM PERFORATUM (ST. JOHN’S WORT) FLOWER/LEAF/STEM EXTRACT (HYPERICUM PERFORATUM)
Derived by maceration of a plant that grows wild throughout much of the world, this extract has antibacterial, antiseptic, astringent, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, healing, tonic and sedative properties. It is believed to be a pain reliever and can help reduce swelling and bruising, as well as help sunburns and bee stings heal. It is useful in creams and lotions made to soothe damaged, dry skin, as well as in belly balms for pregnant women.
HYSSOPUS OFFICINALIS (HYSSOP) LEAF OIL (HYSSOP OFFICINALIS)
Steam distilled from the leaves and flowers of a Mediterranean shrub, this oil has astringent, antiseptic, antiviral, digestive, diuretic, sedative and tonic properties. It can be used as a blended massage oil, bath oil, or as in ingredient in a creams or lotions to help treat skin conditions like eczema, inflammation and dermatitis. It can also be used to help disperse bruising.

I

ILLICIUM VERUM (ANISE) OIL (ILLICIUM VERUM)
This essential oil possesses a fragrant aroma similar to licorice. It is used in massage formulations to help alleviate muscular aches and pains. When used in soap, anise is said to mask human odors.
ILLITE CLAY
This green clay is efficient at drawing oils and toxins from the skin and is also often mistaken for French Green Clay (montmorillonite), to which it is similar. It is used for detoxification and exfoliation of the skin, and can also be used in soaps and body/foot powders.
IMPATIENS CAPENSIS (JEWELWEED) EXTRACT
Cultivated in eastern North America, this ingredient is a remedy for many skin conditions. It helps in the treatment of rashes, dermatitis, bruises, burns, cuts, eczema, insect bites, sores and warts.
INFUSION
Herbal remedy made by steeping the plant material in water.
IRON OXIDES
This FDA approved natural colorant for personal care products and cosmetics is made from iron that has been oxidized. It varies in color, but it is usually yellow, red or black, depending on the degree of water added and the purity.

J

JUNIPERUS COMMUNIS (JUNIPER) OIL (JUNIPERUS COMMUNIS)
Once used as a medicinal herb in many areas of Europe and Asia, this essential oil has a fresh, woody aroma. It is extracted from dried, crushed or slightly dried ripe fruit by steam distillation. Juniper oil can be used in massage oil or diluted in the bath to help reduce the appearance of cellulite, relieve arthritic pain or comfort tired muscles. This oil can also be useful in the treatment of oily skin and acne, weeping eczema, blocked pores, psoriasis and other inflammatory skin ailments.
JUNIPERUS MEXICANA (CEDARWOOD) OIL (JUNIPERUS MEXICANA)
Steam distilled from the wood of this large red cedar grown in North America, this oil is antiseptic, antispasmodic, astringent and diuretic. Traditionally, it has been used to treat skin problems, arthritis and rheumatism, and is said to aid nervous tension and stress. This oil is also said to repel insects and relieve bronchitis, catarrh, circulation problems, congestion, coughs, cystitis, dandruff, eczema, leucorrhea, oily skin, psoriasis, sinusitis and water retention.
JUNIPERUS VIRGINIANA (CEDARWOOD) OIL (JUNIPERUS VIRGINIANA)
Steam distilled from the wood of this slow-growing, coniferous evergreen native to Canada, this essential oil has antiseborrhoreic, antiseptic, antisposmodic, astringent, expectorant, insecticide, fungicide and sedative properties. It has a calming effect and can relieve nervous tension and anxiety. When diluted in a cream, this oil helps to combat oily skin and related problems like acne, as well as dermatitis and psoriasis, while bringing relief to the scalp from dandruff.

K

KAOLIN
Also known as China or white clay, this is the mildest of all clays. A fine, fluffy powder clay that swells in water, it makes a great thickening ingredient. It helps stimulate circulation to the skin while gently exfoliating and cleansing it. It does not draw oils from the skin and can therefore be used on dry skin and sensitive skin. It is naturally absorbent and effective in skin masks, body packs, skin care products, body powders and deodorants.

L

LACTOPEROXIDASE
This naturally existing enzyme is found in raw milk and has antioxidant properties, as well as antimicrobial properties, helping it to preserve personal care products by inhibiting the growth of microbes such as bacteria, fungi and viruses.
LANOLIN
This substance is secreted by the oil glands of sheep. It lubricates, protects and soothes the skin without unpleasant stickiness, and is extremely effective in preventing water loss from hair and skin. It is known to relieve chapped and cracked hands, diaper rash, minor burns, windburns and minor skin abrasions, as well as help fight wrinkles. It is often found in lipsticks, liquid powders, mascaras, nail polish removers, protective oils, rouges, eye shadows, foundation creams, foundation cake makeup, hair conditioners, eye creams, cold creams and brilliantine hairdressings.
LAURYL GLUCOSIDE
This mild Surfactant and detergent is made from coconut oil and sugar. It is often used in shampoos as a detergent and thickening agent.
LAVANDIN ABRIALIS OIL (LAVANDIN ABRIALIS)
Steam distilled from a hybrid developed by crossing true lavender with spike lavender, this oil is non-toxic, non-irritating and non-sensitizing. It is used almost exclusively to add fragrance to products, but is also reputed to have antidepressant, antiseptic, analgesic and expectorant properties. This oil can help relieve muscle stiffness, heal wounds faster, and calm dermatitis.
LAVANDULA ANGUSTIFOLIA (LAVENDER) OIL (LAVANDULA ANGUSTIFOLIA)
Steam distilled from an evergreen shrub grown in the Mediterranean region, mainly France, this oil is antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic and cleansing. It helps with nervous conditions, skin problems, muscle aches and pains, and arthritis and rheumatism. In skin care products, lavender oil tones and revitalizes and is useful in treating all types of skin problems such as abscesses, acne, oily skin, boils, burns, sunburn, wounds, psoriasis, lice, insect bites and stings. It also acts as an insect repellent and can help reduce scarring.
LECITHIN
This naturally occurring group of phospholipids can be found in plant and animal cells and is frequently obtained from common egg yolks and soybeans. It is very rich in the B complex vitamins and is highly nutritive for the skin and hair. A natural emulsifier and spreading ingredient, the natural antioxidant and emollient is often used in eye creams, lipsticks, liquid powders, hand creams and lotions, soaps and many other cosmetics.
LITSEA CUBEBA (LITSEA) OIL (LITSEA CUBEBA)
Also known as May Chang, this essential oil is used to treat aches and pains. Its lemony scent makes it a popular ingredient in perfumes and scented skin creams. The oil is also useful in treating skin conditions such as oily skin, dermatitis and acne.

M

MACADAMIA TERNIFOLIA (MACADAMIA) SEED OIL (MACADAMIA TERNIFOLIA)
Expeller pressed from the seeds of nut trees found in Australia and Hawaii, this monounsaturated oil is has a high content of palmitoleic acid, making it an effective antioxidant. Because palmitoleic acid is also found in human sebum, the oil naturally works with skin, absorbing quickly and acting as an effective emollient. It revitalizes dry and aging skin and helps to reduce fine lines.
MAGNESIUM SULFATE
This small, white crystal resembling salt is used in bath soaks to draw toxins from the body through the skin.
MAGNOLIA GRANDIFLORA BARK EXTRACT
The dried bark of roots and stems of the Magnolia tree has been used in Chinese herbal medicine for over 2000 years because of its antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties. It is believed that two compounds found in this extract are 1000 times more potent in antioxidant activity than vitamin E. This ingredient is used to help brighten the eye area.
MANGIFERA INDICIA (MANGO) SEED BUTTER
This exotic butter is extracted from the seeds of a tropical fruit tree native to India. It has excellent moisturizing properties with high antioxidant content, and is believed to help protect against UV radiation. This ingredient has natural emollient properties, and is reputed to be useful for treating burns, stretch marks, scars and wounds. It can help with skin regeneration and may help smooth wrinkles and restore elasticity.
MARANTA ARUNDINACEA (ARROWROOT) ROOT POWDER (MARANTA ARUNDINACEA)
Derived from a plant native to the West Indies, this white powder looks and feels like cornstarch. It is a popular ingredient in body powders and gives a silky feel to water when it is added to a milk bath. It is also used to thicken water-based or aloe-based lotions and creams.
MELALEUCA ALTERNIFOLIA (TEA TREE) LEAF OIL (MELALEUCA ALTERNIFOLIA)
Derived from the leaves of trees native to Australia, this essential oil has gained recognition as the strongest antifungal, antiviral and antibacterial essential oil. It is a popular addition to skin care formulas for its germ-killing properties and is often used in wintertime cold formulas to keep germs from spreading. The cleansing agent helps combat foot odor and athlete’s foot, and is helpful in treating cold sores, wounds, warts, burns and acne.
MELISSA OFFICINALIS (LEMON BALM) LEAF EXTRACT (MELISSA OFFICINALIS)
Steam distilled from a plant native to the Mediterranean region, this oil adds a sweet, fresh citrus-like smell to personal care products. It is non-toxic, and may help fight infections.
MENTHA ARVENSIS (CORNMINT) LEAF OIL (MENTHA ARVENSIS)
Steam distilled from the leaves and flowers, this oil often comes out solid because of its high levels of menthol. It contains significantly more menthol than peppermint, but is used in much the same way as peppermint oil. Chinese medicine has expanded the use of this oil to include the treatment of ear aches as well as headaches and various skin conditions. It is sometimes preferred to peppermint by soap makers because of its strong aroma, and can be used at very low dilutions in skin care products for its ability to relieve itching.
MENTHA PIPERITA (PEPPERMINT) OIL (MENTHA PIPERITA)
Derived from the leaves of a plant commonly found in Europe and North America, this essential oil is known for its soothing, as well as stimulating properties. Its aroma is believed to help relieve headaches, indigestion, nausea and itching, reduce mental fatigue and increase alertness. It is sometimes used to repel insects. The fresh-smelling, cooling oil is commonly used in soaps and skin creams, and has a warming effect that can help relax sore tire muscles.
MENTHIS VIRIDIS (SPEARMINT) LEAF OIL/EXTRACT (MENTHA VIRIDIS)
Derived from the leaves of a plant commonly found in North America, this essential oil has a slightly milder, sweeter aroma than peppermint. It is believed to increases alertness, open up the respiratory system and lift the spirit. Used sparingly, it can bring a sense of calm and relaxation. It also is a good remedy for nausea and fever. In skin care, spearmint is often used in soaps and facial toners to help cleanse and refine pores.
MENTHOL
Soluble in both oil and alcohol, these clear, colorless crystals are steam distilled from peppermint oil. It has a powerful peppermint aroma. When applied to the skin, the ingredient gives a cooling sensation and acts as an analgesic by numbing the nerves after it cools. For this reason, it is often incorporated into muscle rub ointments. In skin care products, menthol is added to help balance the oil content of skin and hair.
MICA
This fine mineral powder can be used to reflect light and create a pearl-like effect on the skin.
MONTMORILLONITE
French green clay is mostly montmorillonite and is, therefore, highly efficient at drawing oils and toxins from the skin. It is rich in important minerals and phyto-nutrients and is the most commonly used therapeutic clay. It’s also found in facials, body wraps, soaps and body and foot powders.
MORINGA OLEIFERA (MORINGA) OIL (MORINGA OLEIFERA)
Derived from a tree grown in tropical and sub-tropical climates, the healing properties of this essential oil are well documented by ancient cultures. It is similar in composition to olive oil and is high in oleic acid, which helps restore skin’s moisture levels, protect against drying, and keep skin feeling soft and smooth. Moringa oil is light and spreads easily on the skin, making it good for use in massage and aromatherapy applications, as well as everyday skin creams, lotions, balms, scrubs and hair care formulas.
MYRISTICA FRAGRANS (NUTMEG) OIL (MYRISTICA FRAGRANS)
Steam distilled from the seeds of trees cultivated in Indonesia, Sri Lanka and the West Indies, this essential oil is generally considered to be non-toxic, non-irritating and non-sensitizing and has antioxidant and antiseptic properties. It is believed to have analgesic properties and may be useful in massage oils to relieve aches and pains. In addition to being a popular addition to foods, it is used as a fragrance in soaps, lotions, detergents, cosmetics and perfumes—especially men’s colognes.

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NONFAT DRY MILK
Milk has been used in skin care for thousands of years. First developed in Russia in 1802, milk powder is a nourishing addition to bath, bath bomb, milk soap and lotion formulations. It is a natural emollient and is rich in vitamins and minerals. Whole milk powder soothes and moisturizes the skin and helps relieve dryness and skin irritation.

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OCIMUM BASILICUM (BASIL) OIL (OCIMUM BASILICUM)
Steam distilled or macerated from the leaves and flowers of this plant native to India and now grown throughout the world, this essential oil has anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial and anti-spasmodic properties. Its refreshing and tonic action benefits sluggish and congested skin and may help to control acne. It can also be a useful insect repellent.
OENOTHERA BIENNIS (EVENING PRIMROSE) OIL (OENOTHERA BIENNIS)
Expeller pressed from the seeds of an herbaceous plant found in North America and Europe, this oil is a rich source of gamma linoleic acid (GLA), omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids for nourishing the skin. Small amounts are often added to other carrier oils. This oil soothes inflammation and is moisturizing and softening. It is highly recommended for skin problems such as eczema, psoriasis, acne, rosacea. It helps relieve dry, scaly or itchy skin and may also help prevent pores from becoming clogged. This ingredient is often found in face creams, lotions and balms.
OLEA EUROPAEA (OLIVE) FRUIT OIL (OLEA EUROPAEA)
Pressed from the pulp of fully ripe olives, this oil is high in oleic acid and is believed to be a good skin cell regenerator. It attracts external moisture to the skin while still permitting the skin to properly release sweat, shed dead skin and release sebum. This oil is good for treating mature, inflamed or dry skin. It also makes an excellent conditioner for hair and nails. In soaps, this oil creates a long-lasting, non-drying mild product with creamy lather.
ORYZA SATIVA (RICE) BRAN WAX (ORYZA SATIVA)
Expressed from the husks of rice kernels, this emollient wax is used in a wide variety of cosmetics as a thickener, binding agent, plasticizer, coating and gelling agent.
ORYZA SATIVA (RICE) BRAN OIL (ORYZA SATIVA)
Expressed from the husks of rice kernels, this oil is an excellent source of vitamin E, fatty acids and antioxidant nutrients that promote overall good health and stimulate the body and spirit. This oil flows onto the skin smoothly and is moderately penetrating, without being greasy or sticky. It is good for massage oils or lotions and is one of the most gentle oils available, making it perfect for eye creams, baby products and light facial and body moisturizers for all skin types. It is an excellent moisturizer under cosmetics and is great for liquid soaps and hand moisturizers.
ORYZA SATIVA (RICE) BRAN POWDER (ORYZA SATIVA)
This powder, made from the ground husks of rice kernels, is gently exfoliating and is an old Japanese secret for smooth, soft skin. Rice bran powder is said to help prevent wrinkles, quickly heal blemishes, absorb dirt and oil from pores, balance skin’s natural oils and moisturize. It is a popular and effective ingredient in facemasks, body wraps and exfoliating scrubs.

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PELARGONIUM ODORANTISSIMUM (GERANIUM) OIL (PELARGONIUM ODORANTISSIMUM)
This essential oil originated from South Africa, Madagascar, Egypt and Morocco. The leaves and stalks are used for extraction, and the oil is steam distilled. Geranium oil can be used in a blended massage oil or bath formula to assist with stress, anxiety, eczema, edema and circulation. In a cream or lotion, it can be used for repelling insects, treating cellulite and healing burns. Geranium oil helps balance the sebum production of the skin and, in turn, helps keep the skin supple.
PASSIFLORA INCARNATA (PASSIONFRUIT) FRUIT EXTRACT/SEED OIL (PASSIFLORA INCARNATA)
Cold pressed from the seeds of the fragrant, edible fruit of this perennial vine found in Brazil, Australia, Mexico and Africa, this ingredient is rich in essential fatty acids, vitamins A and C, as well as potassium. It acts as an anti-inflammatory and soothes irritated skin. Since it is a light oil, similar to sunflower oil, it does not impart a greasy feel. This oil is commonly used in massage oils and sun care products.
PERSEA GRATISSIMA (AVOCADO) OIL (PERSEA GRATISSIMA)
Expeller pressed from the pulp of ripe avocado fruit, this oil is rich in vitamins A, B1, B2, B5 (Panthothenic acid), D and E, minerals, protein, lecithin and fatty acids. It has the highest penetration rate among similar oils (corn, soybean, olive and almond) and is comprised mostly of oleic, linoleic and linoleinc acids, as well as palmitic and palmitoleic acids, lecithin, phytosterol and carnotinoids. It is a useful, penetrating oil for dry skin and eczema. Avocado oil can be used in massage and moisturizing creams, lotions, balms, body butters, hair oils and lip balms. Its high percentage of unsaponifiables also makes making it an excellent ingredient for soap.
PETROSELINUM CRISPUM (PARSLEY) EXTRACT (PETROSELINUM CRISPUM)
This extract has a warm, herbaceous, spicy aroma. It is a strong diuretic and has been used to help rid the body of toxins from the liver. In a clinical study, this extract was shown to help increase collagen production and to reduce the effects of UVB damage to the skin. It is believed that this extract is beneficial in anti-aging skin care formulas.
PHYTOSTERYL CANOLA GLYCERIDES
This bioactive natural ingredient is the product of pure natural lipids with a high content of sterol esters and canola glycerides. Natural sterols have the potential to behave like cholesterol to strengthen skin cells, thus improving skin’s barrier properties. In some studies, this substance has shown a positive impact on sensitive skin or aging skin by improving skin imbalances, increasing the skin’s barrier and providing potential soothing and anti-inflammatory properties. The ingredient provides excellent moisturizing and soothing properties in skin care products.
PIMENTA RACEMOSA (BAY) OIL (PIMENTA RACEMOSA)
Steam distilled from the leaves of a sturdy evergreen tree native to the West Indies, this essential oil has a sweet, fresh and spicy scent. It is most often used in hair care products to improve the health of the scalp in general. Its distinctive scent also makes it a popular ingredient in men’s aftershaves and colognes.
PIMPINELLA ANISUM (ANISE) SEED OIL (PIMPENELLA ANISUM)
This essential oil has an aroma similar to licorice and can help alleviate muscular aches and pains. When used in soap, anise is said to help mask human odors, making it beneficial in a fisherman’s or hunter’s soap.
PINUS BALSAMEA (FIR) OIL (PINUS BALSAMEA)
Derived from the needles of fir trees, this essential oil has a crisp, clean Christmas tree scent that is uplifting, warming and calming. It is non-toxic, non-irritating and non-sensitizing, but should not be used in the sun and may cause irritation to the eyes. The oil has antiseptic, antitussive, astringent, diuretic, expectorant, nervine and tonic properties. When used in massage oils, liniments or baths, it soothes muscle and rheumatic pain and increases circulation. It can be included in salves or other skin preparations as an antiseptic for skin infection.
PINUS SYLVESTRIS (PINE NEEDLE) OIL (PINUS SYLVESTRIS)
Steam distilled from the needles of pine trees, this essential oil has a familiar pine scent. It can irritate skin, but it is otherwise non-toxic and has excellent antiseptic and deodorant properties. As a disinfectant and an infection fighter, pine is also very effective in a penetrating liniment for sore muscles or joints.
POGOSTEMON CABLINI (PATCHOULI) OIL (POGOSTEMON CABLINI)
Steam distilled from the leaves of the plant, this essential oil has a warm, mellow, earthy scent. It is an effective anti-inflammatory, anti-depressant and stress reliever. In skin care products, it helps to tighten pores and combat wrinkles. It helps regulate oily skin, making it a good additive for acne formulations. Patchouli can also help with dry skin and scalp conditions such as eczema, psoriasis and dandruff, and is said to help stimulate cellulite for elimination. Patchouli is sometimes used for the treatment of sores and burns.
POLYSORBATE 60
This substance consists of stearic acid, derived from vegetable oil. It is often used in cosmetics to solubilize essential oils into water-based products, and is also found in lotions, creams, hair loss treatments and skin cleansers.
PRUNUS AMYGDALUS DULCIS (SWEET ALMOND) FLOUR/MEAL (PRUNUS AMYGDALUS)
This flour, made of ground almond shells, is used extensively in ayurvedic skin care regimens and traditional Indian ubtans, or masks, which leave the skin soft and smooth. It is often included in facial and body scrubs for gentle exfoliation.
PRUNUS AMYGDALUS DULCIS (SWEET ALMOND) OIL (PRUNUS AMYGDALUS)
Cold or expeller pressed from the seeds of the almond tree native to the Middle East, now cultivated in California and the Mediterranean, this oil is rich in proteins, vitamin D and olein glyceride linoleic acid. It is considered extremely nourishing when used regularly and is an excellent emollient, known for its ability to soften and re-condition the skin. It soothes dry skin and irritated areas. The oil is light and penetrates easily, making it suitable for use as an aromatherapy carrier oil, a massage oil or in bath oil formulations. It is also used in various skin creams, lotions, balms, scrubs and soaps.
PRUNUS ARMENIACA (APRICOT) KERNEL OIL (PRUNUS ARMENIACA)
Expeller pressed from air-dried apricots, this essential oil is a triglyceride rich in vitamins A and E. In skin care products, this emollient is a natural alternative to mineral oil, adding good lubricity to products. It is rapidly absorbed and helps skin retain elasticity, clarity, and suppleness. This oil is recommended for mature, sensitive and inflamed, irritated or dry skin. It makes a wonderful massage oil for babies and adults and is used extensively in aromatherapy, face and body creams, lotions, balms, lip care, hair care and soaps.
PRUNUS SEROTINA (WILD CHERRY) BARK EXTRACT (PRUNUS SEROTINA)
Derived from the inner bark of a large, deciduous tree native to North America, this extract has been used for centuries to treat pulmonary conditions such as bronchitis, asthma, dry coughs and tuberculosis, as well as whooping cough, nervous and chronic coughs, colds and influenza. As a tonic, this extract has been used to restore and nourish the entire body. It is believed to possess antioxidant properties that may be helpful in the fight against the oxidative damage to cells and tissue caused by free radicals.
PUNICA GRANATUM (POMEGRANATE) EXTRACT (PUNICA GRANATUM)
Derived from the fruit of a plant native to northern Africa, this essential oil was popularly prescribed in ancient Egypt and Greece as a treatment for arthritis, circulation disorders, viruses, and digestive problems. Its high polyphenol content makes it a powerful antioxidant. It also contains conjugated fatty acids, which give it strong anti-inflammatory properties. It also can reduce swelling and ease muscle aches and pains. The oil’s remarkable ability to nourish, moisturize and improve skin elasticity makes it effective in treating dry skin, maturing skin, eczema, psoriasis and sunburns.

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QUILLAJA SAPONARIA (QUILLAJA) BARK EXTRACT (QUILLAJA SAPONARIA)
Derived from a Chilean endemic tree, this extract has a long history of medicinal use with the Andean people who used it especially as a treatment for various chest problems. It contains antioxidants and proteins, as well as a glucoside saponin, which makes it an effective natural soap, cleanser and foaming agent.

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RHUS SUCCEDANEA (JAPAN) FRUIT WAX
This fat is squeezed from the fruit of a tree grown in Japan and China. It is commonly used as a substitute for beeswax. Japan wax is a thickener in many cosmetics including lotions, creams, makeup, suntan lotions and baby products.
RICINUS COMMUNIS (CASTOR) SEED OIL (RICINUS COMMUNIS)
Derived by various methods from the seeds of the castor plant, found in India, Russia, Brazil, China and Mediterranean countries, this oil is very thick with a slightly sticky texture and a mild odor. Castor oil is rich in fatty acids and is soothing and lubricating. It offers anti-inflammatory properties, helps treat eczema, psoriasis, chapped skin and burns and moisturizes skin. It is a humectant that attracts moisture to the skin. It also acts as a protective barrier and is routinely used in soaps, hair oils, balms and other thick emulsions for the skin and hair.
ROSA CANINA (ROSE HIPS) SEED OIL (ROSA CANINA)
Derived from the seeds of the rose hip bush, which grows in the Andes Mountains of South America, this oil is healing and has antiseptic properties. It contains high amounts of linoleic acid and vitamin C, as well as smaller amounts of trans-retinoic acid. Found to help repair tissue damage, this oil contains natural retinoic acid that helps to prevent premature aging and minimize the appearance of wrinkles, stretch marks and other spots and scars. It is most commonly used to hydrate skin and treat eczema and psoriasis, and is excellent for dry, mature and aging skin.
ROSA DAMASCENA (BULGARIAN ROSE) ABSOLUTE (ROSA DAMASCENA)
The purest form of the steam distilled oil from the flowers of the Bulgarian rose, this essential oil is known as the “Queen of Oils” because of its “feminine” properties. It soothes, tones and cleanses skin, and uplifts the spirits. It is an excellent skincare oil, perfect to restore moisture to dry and aging skin.
ROSA DAMASCENA (BULGARIAN ROSE) FLOWER OIL (ROSA DAMASCENA)
Steam distilled from the flower that grows in Morocco and Turkey, this essential oil is known as the Queen of Oils because of its “feminine” properties. It has a complex, sweet floral scent and is known for its balancing effect and ability to calm the mind. The oil also has anti-inflammatory properties and is refreshing, moisturizing and soothing for skin. It tones and cleanses skin and has a regenerating effect. It is an excellent skincare oil, perfect to restore moisture to dry and aging skin and help reduce the appearance of wrinkles.
ROSA DAMASCENA (BULGARIAN ROSE) PETAL POWDER (ROSA DAMASCENA)
Made from the petals or rosebuds of the Bulgarian rose, this fragrant powder has the same sweet scent as the oil, but to a lesser degree. The powder has gentle cleansing and astringent properties and adds a relaxing aroma to body wraps and blends. Combined with other ingredients, it can help stimulate circulation and help treat acne. It is often found in body powders, facials, salt scrubs, milk baths and soap.
ROSE ATTAR (ROSE OTTO)
This essential oil is steam distilled from the petals of various types of roses – usually the damask rose, widely grown in eastern Europe, India, Iran and China and the cabbage rose, commonly grown in Morocco, France and Egypt. It has an intoxicating fragrance of roses in a sandalwood base. It is used extensively in perfumery. Rose attar can be used to fragrance exotic skin care formulations or "as is" as a natural perfume oil.
ANIBA ROSAEODORA (ROSEWOOD) WOOD OIL (ANIBA ROSAEODORA)
Steam distilled from a tropical evergreen tree native to the Amazon region, this oil is relaxing and deodorizing. It is a comforting and warming oil that is known to help calm and uplift the spirit, and fight fatigue. Since it has antibacterial properties, it is helpful in relieving skin irritations, including acne, dermatitis and sensitive, inflamed skin. Because it is believed to be effective in maintaining the skin's oil balance and elasticity, it is used in many massage oils and toners. This oil is known to tighten skin and possibly reduce the appearance of stretch marks and scars, and is believed to be a skin cell rejuvenator, combating prematurely aged skin and wrinkles.
ROSEMARINUS OFFICINALIS (ROSEMARY) LEAF OIL/EXTRACT (ROSEMARINUS OFFICINALIS)
Derived from the leaves of the evergreen rosemary shrub, this ingredient has an herbaceous, woody, sharp, camphor-like scent. It balances intense emotions, controls mood swings, counters depression and can help manage stress, as well as ease muscle and joint pain. Its best-known use as a facial oil for extremely dry skin, but it is also found in products for oily skin and acne. In hair products, it is known to nourish the scalp, keep hair looking healthy and shiny and improve scalp problems, particularly dandruff and seborrhea. Rosemary is also believed to be helpful in treating cellulite.
ROYAL JELLY
This secretion of the hypopharyngeal gland of young worker bees contains nectar, pollen, flower parts, vitamins, minerals, bee hormones and other natural ingredients. It is said to be one of the most nutritious substances on earth, and is used to feed select larvae and the adult queen bee, helping her live 40 times longer than her workers. Royal jelly contains essential fatty acids, which help protect skin from dehydration and reduce inflammation. It also contains collagen, lecithin, protein, sugars, mineral salts and vitamins A, B complex, C, D and E, all of which benefit the skin. It is said to help revitalize the skin, plump up skin cells, improve elasticity and help heal damaged skin.
RUBUS IDAEUS (RED RASPBERRY) SEED OIL (RUBUS IDAEUS)
Cold pressed from the tiny seeds of raspberries, this oil has an exceptionally high proportion of alpha and gamma tocopherols (vitamin E), vitamin A and omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. It has strong antioxidant properties and contains ellagic acid, which is anticarcinogenic, antimutagenic, antibacterial and antiviral. It is believed to provide broad-spectrum protection from damaging UV-A and UV-B rays. Highly moisturizing and emollient, it has stronger anti-inflammatory properties than other similar oils, and may be the most effective oil for the treatment of eczema, psoriasis and other skin conditions. It is a nourishing and healing addition to balms, creams, sun protection and other skin care products, including acne formulations.

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SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM (SUGAR CANE) EXTRACT (SACCHARUM OFFICINARUM)
Derived from the pulp of the sugar cane plant, this extract has is used in skin care products for its exfoliating properties.
SALIVA OFFICINALIS (SAGE) OIL (SALIVA OFFICINALIS)
Steam distilled from the leaves of an evergreen shrub, this essential oil is stimulating, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobal, antioxidant, antiseptic and astringent. It can be used to help stimulate the immune and lymphatic systems and boost glandular function. This oil can also help ease arthritic pains and muscle aches, treat dermatitis and insect bites, and helps to reduce large pores.
SALIVA SCLAREA (CLARY SAGE) OIL (SALIVA SCLAREA)
Steam distilled from the flowers and leaves of a biennial herb native to southern Europe, this essential oil is calming to both the body and the mind. It can help alleviate symptoms of menopause and cool painful muscles and joints. It also helps balance the production of sebum, clear oily complexions and control skin conditions like acne. It can be useful in toners and make-up removers.
SANTALUM ALBUM (SANDALWOOD) OIL (SANTALUM ALBUM)
Used for over 4,000 years as a perfume and temple incense, this essential oil has a sweet, buttery, woody aroma that is very sensual. It is uplifting and relaxing and is effective for balancing all types of skin. It has an astringent effect on oily skin and helps soothe irritated skin.
SCLEROCARYA BIRREA (MARULA) KERNEL OIL (SCLEROCARYA BIRREA)
Cold pressed from the nuts of a tree indigenous to Africa, this essential oil is rich in antioxidants, including vitamins A and E, as well as oleic acid. It has a high concentration of palmitic acid, which forms a protective coating on the skin’s surface. Because of this, it is a great ingredient for dry skin care products. This oil is commonly used as a super fatting oil in soap formulas. It absorbs quickly, hydrates the skin, helps to heal skin tissue, helps reduce redness, helps reduce trans-epidermal water loss and increases the smoothness of skin. It is also a good conditioner for hair.
SEA SALT
Naturally harvested sea salt is made of sodium chloride, a soluble mineral that crystallizes in small transparent cubes. In skin care formulas, this ingredient helps to draw toxins from the skin and exfoliate. It is often found in bath salts and scrubs, as well as foot scrubs and body polishes.
SESAMUM INDICUM (SESAME SEED) OIL (SESAMUM INDICUM)
Expeller pressed from the seeds of a plant found in tropical regions of Asia, Africa and South America, this heavy oil is rich in essential fatty acids, vitamins A, B and E, calcium, magnesium and phosphorous. It has many of the same emollient properties as olive oil, as well as other nut and vegetable oils. This oil helps to maintain integrity of skin tissue while restructuring and moisturizing the skin. It is often found in massage oil, bath oil and sun care oil formulations.
SHOREA STENOPTERA (ILLIPE) SEED BUTTER (SHOREA STENOPTERA)
Derived from the nuts of a tropical tree, this butter is very similar to cocoa butter. This mild butter reinforces the skin’s lipidic barrier, helping maintain moisture and restore skin’s elasticity. Its firmness and high melting point allows it to lend rigidity to balms, stick formulations and soaps. It is also used in skin and sun care products and massage creams.
SILICA
This white powder, which is slightly soluble in water, occurs abundantly in nature and is an absorbent material for skin creams.
SIMMONDSIA CHINENSIS (JOJOBA) SEED OIL (SIMMONDSIA CHINENSIS)
Expeller pressed from the nuts of a plant found in the deserts of the U.S. and Mexico, this essential oil contains protein and minerals, as well as a waxy substance similar to collagen. It has antioxidant properties and contains a natural anti-inflammatory called myristic acid. Offering the traits of both an oil and a wax, it is an ideal ingredient in soap, cream, lotion, balm and massage oil formulations. It is highly penetrating and closely resembles skin’s natural sebum. In facial products, it helps to remove excess oils and to help balance the skin's natural oil. This oil can also help lighten and heal scars and reduce wrinkles and stretch marks.
SODIUM BORATE
This mild alkali is used in cosmetics and toiletries as a water softener, preservative and texturizer. It is often combined with beeswax as an emulsifier. While not toxic externally, there is some toxicity internally and this substance should not be applied to broken skin.
SODIUM CHLORIDE
This concentrated mineral salt derived from the sea is non-toxic and non-irritating. It is commonly used to thicken personal care product formulas and to help draw impurities out of the body through the skin.
SODIUM COCOYL HYDROLYZED SOY PROTEIN
Derived from sun-ripened soya beans and stripped coconut fatty acid, this ingredient provides mild, gentle conditioning and generates a rich, natural lather. It is often used as a hair and skin conditioner.
STEARIC ACID
Naturally derived from soybeans, this waxy solid substance is the main ingredient used in making bar soaps to harden and opacify them. It also acts an emulsifier and thickener for lotions and creams.
SUCROSE DISTEARATE
Plant sugars are combined with plant oil fatty acids by simple, non-toxic processes to make this biodegradable surfactant and emulsifier. It is gentle to the skin with a softening, cooling, moisturizing and anti-microbial effect.
SUCROSE LAURATE
Plant sugars are combined with plant oil fatty acids by simple, non-toxic processes to make this biodegradable surfactant and emulsifier. It is gentle to the skin with a softening, cooling, moisturizing and anti-microbial effect.
SUCROSE POLYSTEARATE
Plant sugars are combined with plant oil fatty acids by simple, non-toxic processes to make this biodegradable surfactant and emulsifier. It is gentle to the skin with a softening, cooling, moisturizing and anti-microbial effect.
SUCROSE STEARATE
Plant sugars are combined with plant oil fatty acids by simple, non-toxic processes to make this biodegradable surfactant and emulsifier. It is gentle to the skin with a softening, cooling, moisturizing and anti-microbial effect.
SYMPHYTUM OFFICINALE (COMFREY) EXTRACT (SYMPHYTUM OFFICINALE)
Derived from plants native to Europe and Asia, this extract is astringent and offers exceptional medicinal properties for external use. It is believed to be a cellular regenerator with anti-scarring properties. The extract has been used to treat sunburns, sprains, cuts, abrasions, bruises, swelling, boils and abscesses. In skin care products, it known to be effective in treating eczema and dry skin, and is beneficial for all skin types.

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TAPIOCA STARCH
With a similar appearance and texture to flour, this ingredient is made from cassava root, a starchy tropical vegetable that is widely grown in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean. It is commonly used as a thickener.
THEOBROMA CACAO (COCOA) SEED BUTTER (THEOBROMA CACAO)
This pure, crushed butter is obtained from the seeds of trees grown in Central and South America and Africa. Known for its hydrating effects and pleasing aroma, cocoa butter may help relieve stress, boost the immune system, and even prevent cancer because of its CMP content. It is rich in antioxidants and many vitamins and minerals, including vitamin E, which helps to soothe, hydrate and balance the skin. It also helps boost skin’s collagen production, which helps to combat wrinkles and other signs of aging. This nourishing ingredient softens and soothes dry, chapped skin, helps to treat skin irritations, and is often used as a thickening agent in lip balms and skin creams. Pregnant women across the world smooth Cocoa Butter on their bellies to help prevent and minimize the appearance of stretch marks by keeping the skin supple.
THEOBROMA GRANDIFLORUM (CUPUACU) SEED BUTTER (THEOBROMA GRANDIFLORUM)
Cold or expeller pressed from the seeds of trees similar to the cocoa tree and native to the Amazon region, this butter possesses a softer, creamier consistency than cocoa butter and is an effective alternative to lanolin. This ingredient contains phytosterols, an unsaponifiable component that acts at the cellular level, regulating the balance and activity of the lipids in skin’s outermost layer. This emollient butter offers a pleasant touch and softness to the skin, and improves the water content and elasticity of the skin, as well as treating skin conditions including eczema and dermatitis. It also is an effective ingredient for use in hair care products intended to add shine and replenish the moisture in hair.
THUJA OCCIDENTALIS (WHITE CEDAR LEAF) OIL (THUJA OCCIDENTALIS)
Steam distilled from the leaves of the White Cedar originally found in Canada, this essential oil possesses a beautiful, woody aroma. It has been used for coughs, fever, cystitis, rheumatism, gout and warts. Today, it is used in aromatic formulations and can be a useful component within insect repellent blends.
THYMUS VULGARIS (THYME) OIL (THYMUS VULGARIS)
Steam distilled from the flowers of an herb native to Spain, this essential oil has a strong herbaceous, spicy aroma that is energizing, stimulating and toning. This oil is also effective as a deodorizing agent and in regulating sebum in the skin.
TILIA CORDATA (LINDEN) FLOWER EXTRACT (TILIA CORDATA)
Derived from the trees native to Europe and cultivated in North America, this extract has natural emollient properties, and is rich in flavonoids, manganese and vitamin C. It was traditionally used to treat headaches, soothe nerves and upset stomachs. Today, this ingredient is often added to cosmetics and shampoos that soothe skin and bring out lustrous highlights in hair.
TITANIUM DIOXIDE
Titanium dioxide occurs in nature as the well-known, naturally occurring minerals rutile, anatase and brookite. The most common form is rutile, which is also the most stable form. Titanium dioxide is the most widely used white pigment because of its brightness and very high refractive index. This mineral imparts a whiteness to color cosmetics and personal care products applied to the skin, nails and lips, and it helps to increase the opacity of formulas. Because it absorbs, reflects, or scatters light (including ultraviolet radiation in light), it can help protect products from deterioration. This property also makes it an important ingredient in sunscreens, where it can successfully reflect UVA, UVB and UVC rays, helping prevent skin cancer and the signs of premature aging that can result from sun damage.
TOCOPHEROL
This natural form of vitamin E is the most effective antioxidant, protecting cellular structures against damage from free radicals and the by-products of fat peroxidation. It acts as a free radical scavenger to prevent the by-products of chemical-cell interaction that causes cell damage. Its moisturizing and restorative qualities make it an important component of many skin care products including anti-aging creams and lotions, UV protectant products, moisturizers, burn treatments and belly creams to prevent and reduce the appearance of stretch marks.
TOCOPHERYL ACETATE
This synthetic version of tocopheryl (vitamin E) is an effective antioxidant, protecting cellular structures against damage from free radicals and the by-products of fat peroxidation. It acts as a free radical scavenger to prevent the by-products of chemical-cell interaction that causes cell damage. Its moisturizing and restorative qualities make it an important component of many skin care products including anti-aging creams and lotions, UV protective products, moisturizers, burn treatments and belly creams to prevent and reduce the appearance of stretch marks.
TRITICUM VULGARE (WHEAT) GERM OIL (TRITICUM VULGARE)
Made from the heart of common wheat grains, this oil is high in lecithin, fatty acids and vitamins A, D and E. Because of its high vitamin E content, it has antioxidant properties. It is exceptional for treating dry skin, and is said to promote smoother, younger looking skin, assisting in healing scar tissue and reducing the appearance of stretch marks.

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URTICA DIOICA (NETTLE) EXTRACT/LEAF POWDER (URTICA DIOICA)
Pressed or steam distilled from the leaves and root of a plant found in temperate regions of Europe, Asia, Africa, Australia and South America, this ingredient a good source of chlorophyll, histamines, formic acid, mucilage, minerals and vitamins A and D. It has astringent and antioxidant properties, helps promote circulation and shine, and is nourishing and strengthening. This ingredient is excellent for treating eczema and other dry skin conditions and is used as a natural, deep cleanser for oily skin. It is often found in hair care products and sometimes used in soaps to give them a natural green color.

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VACCINIUM MYRTILLUS (BILBERRY) FRUIT/LEAF EXTRACT (VACCINIUM MYRTILLUS)
Derived by maceration from the berries and leaves of a perennial shrub native to northern Europe, North America and Canada, this extract has been used for centuries for its many medicinal properties. Rich in vitamins A and C, highly astringent and loaded with antioxidant bioflavinoids, bilberry has traditionally been used to help improve vision, protect capillary structures, strengthen veins and prevent bruising. Naturally rich in alpha hydroxyl acids, bilberry extract offers gentle exfoliation as well. It is believed to help promote collagen synthesis and is often found in skin care products, as well as shampoos and conditioners.
VANILLA PLANIFOLIA (VANILLA) FRUIT EXTRACT (VANILLA PLANIFOLIA)
Derived by maceration from the beans of the only orchid that produces edible fruit, this extract is a source of polyphenols, which exhibit antioxidant activity and serve as anti-inflammatory agents. Its nostalgic scent promotes self-confidence, sensuality, calm emotions and restful dreams, and is often used in aromatherapy products to promote relaxation. It may easily be one of the most well-known flavors in the world. The extract is widely used to scent everything from perfumes to candles and lotions. Due to its ability to nourish dry skin and dull hair, vanilla is added to lotion, bath oil and shampoo.
VANILLIN (VANILLA PLANIFOLIA)
Derived from the green seedpods of the vanilla plant, this ingredient is one of the over two hundred organic components that make up the flavor and aroma of vanilla, and it's the one we most associate with vanilla. It is also used by the fragrance industry in perfumes, and to mask unpleasant odors or tastes in medicines.
VEGETABLE OIL
This expressed oil of vegetable origin consists primarily of triglycerides of fatty acids. It generally is used as a carrier oil.
VEGETABLE SOAP BASE
Historically, soaps have been made from animal fats, which have been found to clog pores and aggravate certain skin conditions such as eczema. Over time, new oils were extracted from vegetables, grains and nuts such as coconut oil, olive oil and sunflower oil providing an alternative. Vegetable oil soaps can be of higher quality and are more readily absorbed by the skin.
VITIS VINIFERA (GRAPE) SEED EXTRACT/OIL (VITIS VINIFERA)
Extracted from grape seeds after the fruit is juiced, this oil is rich in antioxidants, vitamins, minerals, protein, GLA and vitamin E. It is a light, slightly astringent, penetrating oil for massage and aromatherapy applications. This oil is easily absorbed by the skin, and is a nourishing addition to lotion, cream, lip balm, eye cream and special formulations intended for dry, damaged or aging skin. Grape seed oil is noted for its great skin moisturizing properties as well as regenerative and restructuring benefits. Its high linoleic acid content gives it good moisturizing and nourishing properties.

W

WATER
Aqua is the Latin and eau is French for water. “Purified water" and "distilled water" are terms describing the highest quality used in personal care products. These terms describe water that has been stripped of ionic contaminants such as metals, carbonates, bicarbonates and other free radicals that may interfere with chemical reactions in the products and in the body system.

X

XANTHAN GUM
This polysaccharide, or sugar polymer, is a natural thickener derived from corn sugar by a fermentation process. It is a common food additive and is also used to thicken and add volume to lotions, creams and gels. It also works as a suspension agent.

Y

YUCCA SCHIDIGERA LEAF/ROOT/STEM EXTRACT (YUCCA SCHIDIGERA)
Derived by maceration from a plant grown in the dryer regions of North and Central America, this extract has anti-inflammatory and cleansing properties. It is a good source of saponins, minerals, protein and tannin. This extract is an effective foaming agent in dandruff shampoo, creating body and volume, stimulating the scalp, reducing oil and helping hair hold a style.

Z

ZEA MAYS (CORN) STARCH (ZEA MAYS)
Cornstarch is a silky powdery starch made from corn. It is used in body powders, cosmetics, milk baths and bath bombs to add silkiness and to soothe the skin. Cornstarch is a safer alternative than using talc on babies. It can be added to diaper area barrier creams to keep the skin dry and protected from moisture. When used in water-based formulations, cornstarch acts as a thickener.
ZINC OXIDE
This white powder has wonderful astringent properties and a great soothing effect for use in many skin care formulas, including calamine lotion. It physically works to provide 28 times the skin’s natural protections against harmful UVA and UVB rays, and is often used in ointments, creams, and lotions to protect against sunburn and other damage to the skin caused by ultraviolet light. Additionally, it is used to thicken lotions and creams, add white pigment to face, body and nursery powders.
ZINGIBER OFFICINALE (GINGER) EXTRACT/OIL (ZINGIBER OFFICINALE)
Steam distilled from the root of the ginger plant, native to India, China and Java, this extract has a peppery, sharp, pungent, aromatic, warm and spicy odor often with a hint of camphor or lemon. Inhaling the scent is said to be stimulating. Ginger is believed to help relieve nausea and motion sickness. Used in a compress, lotion, liniment, or massage oil, its heating action helps to relieve pain from arthritis, sore muscles, menstrual cramps and headache.